Prof. Xinyong Li, Dalian University of Technology
(1) Environmental catalysis and green catalysis
(2) Environmental engineering and functional materials
(3) Pollution control chemistry and technology
(4) Solar energy conversion and utilization
(5) Environmental pollution chemistry
(6) In situ spectroscopy and nanochemistry
Speech Title: In Situ Spectroscopy Investigation of the Surface-Interface Charge-Transfer Process over Catalysis Reactions
The extremely increasing energy demands have inspired a worldwide research on developing clean energy sources to substitute for fossil fuels. Although Scientists have done lots of work on that, there are also many problems such as how to further enhance the PEC fuel cell solar energy utilization & conversion efficiency? The detail micro-interface process, redox mechanism, charge-carrier behavior and active species actions need to be further studied. In order to solve those problems, we have studied a series of researches: (I)Tailored Spinel Nanostructured Materials Based PEC Fuel Cells for Solar Energy Utilization and Conversion; (II)Tailored Polyhalogenated Nanostructured Materials Based PEC Fuel Cells for Solar Energy Utilization and Conversion; (III)Joint MFC-PEC Novel Coupling Cells for Solar Energy Utilization and Conversion; (IV) In Situ Spectroscopy Investigation of the Surface-interface Charge-Transfer Process over Tailored Nano-structured Based PEC Fuel Cells. We found that nanostructured assemblies can be engineered to tailor the properties of external fields modulated and/or light harvesting assemblies. The crystal-, micro- and surface-interface structure could be tailored by utilizing various synthesis strategies, which would incur the nanomaterials with novel PEC properties. Furthermore, combined in situ spectroscopic characterisation could provide more detail structural information and redox process over micro-interface, which would be beneficial for design efficient solar and energy conversion based materials at molecular utilization and/or atomic level. The tailored nanomaterials may find novel applications in multidisciplinary fields.
Prof. Guoan Wang, China Agricultural University
(1) Using stable isotopes to study biogeochemical cycles and global changes
Speech Title: Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Plant Nitrogen Uptake Strategy Under Different Soil Water Conditions
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could influence plant abilities of total nitrogen (N) acquisition. Global changes have been influencing availabilities of different N forms and water resources in soil. However, it is uncertain whether and how AMF colonization affects plant uptake and preference of different N forms and how are they affected by soil water conditions. We conducted a pot experiment with Funneliformis mosseae (a common arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species) colonized and non-colonized maize (Zea mays L.) growing at low and high water conditions, the growth medium contained much more nitrate (NO3–) than ammonium (NH4+). F. mosseae colonization and high water availability increased maize biomass and total N uptake. Enhanced water supply increased proportional contributions of NH4+ to colonized and non-colonized maize because high water conditions may increase NH4+ accessibility to maize. F. mosseae colonization weakened proportional contributions and preference of NH4+ in maize, indicating that AMF enable plants to prefer using the more abundant N form and develop more beneficial N uptake strategies considering that NO3– was more dominant than NH4+ in growth medium. Furthermore, greater decreases in maize NH4+ preference by F. mosseae colonization were found in high than low water conditions. This demonstrated greater effects of AMF on regulating plant N uptake strategies in soils with greater water availability. This work revealed the regulation of AMF colonization on plant N uptake strategies under different soil water conditions. The findings enriched our knowledge of plant N use in the context of global changes.
Prof. Lei Chen, Shandong University of Science and Technology
(1) The origin and early evolution of multicellular organisms
Speech Title: An assemblage of macroscopic and diversified carbonaceous compression fossils in the Tonian Period
Complex multicellularity arose relatively late in the history of life, entering the fossil record after the Snowball Earth, more than three billion years after microbial life began to diversify. Although macroscopic eukaryotes have a deep history within the Precambrian, most pre-Cryogenian macroscopic fossils are poorly documented during this period. Here we found an assemblage of macroscopic and diversified carbonaceous compression fossils from the Tonian Tumen Group in North China. This assemblage consists of 35 distinct morphotaxa, including 15 macroalgae, showing a remarkable degree of taxonomic diversity that nearly matches those of the Ediacaran macroalga assemblages. Large number of benthic macroalgae fossils preserved in situ suggests that the Tonian diversity of macroscopic is probably underestimated, which may have an initial ecological expansion, at least locally if not globally, in the Tonian.